Pekingology: a series on recent developments in economic statecraft policy.
In March 2021, the People’s Republic of China (PRC) recently published its 14th Five-Year Plan (FYP), the PRC government’s over-arching plan for the years 2021 to 2025. The PRC government issues FYPs every five years to set the overall direction and objectives of economic and social policy during the subsequent five-year period.
The 14th FYP makes clear that the PRC government is not content to perpetually serve at the lower reaches of the global value chain as the “workshop of the world”. The PRC government has long targeted frontier technology areas and strategic sectors for development. As targets are achieved (or missed) and as the global technological frontier evolves, the PRC government periodically recalibrates its targets. The most recent recalibration occurred in the 14th FYP.
In the 14th FYP, the PRC government targets 7 frontier technology areas, 8 manufacturing sectors, and 7 digital economy sectors. In the coming months and years, the 14th FYP target areas will be further detailed in a variety of policy documents and other venues. The targets outlined in the 14th FYP build upon and slightly recalibrate targets outlined in previous plans, like the 13th FYP, Made in China 2025, and the National Medium- and Long-Term Plan for Science and Technology (2006-2020). Accordingly, the PRC’s vast economic statecraft machinery will be directed at these targeted areas in the coming years.
Companies and other organizations with valuable intellectual property in the following targeted areas can expect to receive extra attention from PRC government talent recruitment and technology acquisition initiatives.
7 Frontier Technology Areas to Attack
1) Next Generation AI (新一代人工智能)
2) Quantum Information (量子信息)
3) Integrated Circuit (集成电路)
4) Brain Science and Brain-Like Intelligence Research (脑科学与类脑研究)
5) Gene and Biotechnology (基因与生物技术)
6) Clinical Medical and Health (临床医学与健康)
7) Deep Space, Deep Earth, Deep Sea, and Polar Exploration (深空深地深海和极地探测)
8 Manufacturing Sectors to Increase Core Competitiveness (制造业核心竞争力提升)
1) High-End New Materials (高端新材料)
2) Major Technology Equipment (重大技术装备)
3) Smart Manufacturing and Robotics Technology (智能制造与机器人技术)
4) Aero Engines and Gas Turbines (航空发动机及燃气轮机)
5) Beidou Industrialization Applications (北斗产业化应用)
6) New Energy Vehicles and Smart (Network) Vehicles (新能源汽车和智能（网联）汽车)
7) High-End Medical Equipment and Innovative Pharmaceuticals (高端医疗装备和创新药)
8) Agricultural Machinery and Equipment (农业机械装备)
7 Digital Economy Key Sectors (数字经济重点产业)
1) Cloud Computing (云计算)
2) Big Data (大数据)
3) Internet of Things (物联网)
4) Industrial Internet (工业互联网)
5) Blockchain (区块链)
6) Artificial Intelligence (人工智能)
7) Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality (虚拟现实和增强现实)